Category Archives: Soya-Bean

How can studies in Asian populations be used to draw conclusions about the benefits of soya in the West?

health-promotion-industryIt’s not just Asian population studies that show a beneficial effect of soya on health. There are also a number of studies in Western populations. For example in a study of 1033 British women (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study), women consuming ≥ 6g of soya protein/ day had a 7.5% lower total cholesterol and a 12.4% lower LDL cholesterol than women eating < 0.5g/ day.

The same study has also examined the effect of genistein and the risk of prostate cancer in European men. Data from 10 European countries found that higher levels of genistein (a type of isoflavone found in soya) in the plasma was associated with a 26% lower risk of prostate cancer. This may help to explain why men living in East Asian countries have a lower rate of prostate cancer compared to men living in Europe.

Furthermore numerous clinical studies examining the effect of soya on risk factors for disease have been conducted both in Western and Asian groups with similar findings.

What evidence is available to show that soya has particular health benefits?

stock-footage-healthy-snack-dried-salty-soybeans-woman-showing-asian-snack-dry-soya-beansStudies investigating populations who traditionally eat soya foods have found that people who eat more soya foods have lower incidences of certain diseases compared to those that eat less. Furthermore numerous clinical studies, examining the effect of soya on markers of disease risk, support these findings.

As a result of the wealth of scientific data now available, a number of organisations recommend the use of soya and / or soya isoflavones. For example, the position of the North American Menopause Society (NAMS) – ‘In women who need relief for mild vasomotor symptoms, NAMS recommends first considering lifestyle changes, either alone or combined with a non prescription remedy, such as dietary isoflavones, black cohosh, or vitamin E.’

In addition, a EU funded project entitled ‘Phytohealth’, which is examining the health and safety of phytoestrogens, has commented ‘On the basis of the available evidence, the panel has concluded that the consumption of whole soya bean foods and Soya Protein Isolates has some beneficial effects on lipid markers of cardiovascular risk in healthy postmenopausal women.’

Not forgetting the international recommendations advising to increase the consumption of plant proteins in the form of legumes. For example, World Cancer Research Fund: ‘Choose predominately plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables and fruits, pulses (legumes) and minimally processed starchy staple foods.’

World Health Organisation: ‘Daily intake of fresh fruit and vegetables (including berries, green leafy and cruciferous vegetables and legumes) is recommended to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and high blood pressure’.

What are isoflavones?

250px-Isoflavon_num.svgSoya beans, as well as chickpeas, beans, red clover, flaxseed and wholegrain cereals, contain natural plant compounds, called phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens have a similar chemical structure to the hormone oestrogen. Soya beans are one of the richest food sources of a group of phytoestrogens called isoflavones.
Although isoflavones have a chemical structure similar to oestrogen they
are far weaker. In fact it is has been estimated that between 1000 and
400,000 more isoflavones would be needed in the human body to have
the same biological effect as oestrogen. Yet these isoflavones are being
investigated for their potential health benefits, as they appear to fit and
interact at oestrogen receptors located around the body to positively
affect various tissues and organs. Furthermore studies have also found
them to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.

Is soya nutritious?

samjs-tofuYes. The soya bean is low in saturated fat, a good source of
polyunsaturated fats (especially the plant omega-3 fatty acids), contains
one of the highest quality vegetable proteins around (similar in quality
to meat and milk protein), is a source of fibre and contains various
vitamins and minerals. Because of this nutritional profile, the soya bean
fits in well to general healthy eating guidelines.
Of particular nutritional interest to health is:

• Soya Protein (heart health and possibly weight management)
• Isoflavones (menopause, bone health, prostate and breast cancer)
• Fibre (weight management)
• Fat profile (heart health)

Cotton Seed Meal as a source of Protein in Animal Feeds

CottonMany people are unaware of the valuable source of protein found in the simple Cotton Seed, rather opting for the conventional soya and maize alternative. Not only is this a cost effective alternative but also considered to be very nutritious. The seeds make up about 15% of the actual cotton plant and are made up of 20% protein, 20% oil and 3.5% starch. Cottonseed meal is also considered to have more arginine (one of the 20 most common Amino Acids) versus soya meal.

The valuable proteins and starch from the seeds can be extracted by two methods, namely Extrusion, (whereby the ground cotton seed kernels are forced under high pressure and heat through a constantly revolving screw in a barrel and then forced through a die), the end result will be a Cotton Seed cake which can then be used in animal feed and the actual cotton seed oil. The second method of extraction is through using a solvent. This method is generally used to extract the oil and the meal generally has a lower fat content.

The cotton seed hulls are also a valuable addition to animal feed due to their equally high nutritional content. as they contain 8% Cotton linters that are almost 100% cellulose.They require no grinding and easily mix with other feed sources. As they are easy to handle, their transportation cost is fairly low as well.

Cotton seedWhole cottonseeds are also a great addition to feed especially in ruminant animals and have even been the choice of many dairy farmers in increasing production of milk & fat in high-producing dairy cows with its high protein , crude fibre value and high energy value of up to 20%. The product is also easily digestable.

So the humble cotton seed offers another alternative to the traditional nutritional mix of animal feed that should definitely be considered.

Extruders? What are they and what are they used for?

Huh?It has come to my attention that not many people know what an extruder is and what it’s used for. Let’s hope I can address this injustice in this article!

Extruders are used to create objects of a specified length or size, this process is known as extrusion. Commonly extruded materials would be metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete and even food.

At Quadro Alloys Trading Enterprise we specialize in the design, manufacture and maintenance of extruder units/machines used in food extrusion; the process whereby a specific set of ingredients are mixed together and forced through a large, rotating screw which is tightly fitted inside a stationary barrel and then through a perforated plate or die, the resultant mix is known as the extrudate.

The end product can be anything from fish pellets to dog food.

I mentioned earlier that not knowing all of this was an injustice, well, here’s what I mean: In Africa (and some other countries) poverty is an issue that affects health conditions; some are struggling with malnutrition and some even die from it. Our extruders (in conjunction with our hammer mill machine) can be used to help solve this problem; the soya bean, a legume native to East Asia, is an amazing source of cheap protein used for things like oil, meal, flour, infant formula, dietary (meat and dairy) extenders or substitutes and cattle feed. In addition to these, floating fish feed (something we specialize in and are especially proud of) is often used in feeding the “water chicken”, a species of fish called the Tilapia (which is easily farmed). This fish has now become an accepted mechanism used for the feeding of the poor which is probably one of the easiest ways to feed them – and our philosophy is “feed the fish, feed the poor”.

Extruder machines are miracle inventions, and with your help as an entrepreneur, we can work together and make a difference in this world.

 

The Soya Bean

The soybean (US) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).Soybean

Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged mealssoy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues. Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land.

Traditional nonfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, and from the latter tofu and tofu skin. Fermented foods include soy saucefermented bean pastenatto, and tempeh, among others. The oil is used in many industrial applications. The main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (19%), China (6%) and India (4%). The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acidalpha-linolenic acid, and isoflavones.

Soy varies in growth and habit. The height of the plant varies from less than 0.2 to 2.0 m (0.66 to 6.6 ft).

The pods, stems, and leaves are covered with fine brown or gray hairs. The leaves are trifoliolate, having three to four leaflets per leaf, and the leaflets are 6–15 cm (2.4–5.9 in) long and 2–7 cm (0.79–2.8 in) broad. The leaves fall before the seeds are mature. The inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple.

Small, purple soybean flowers

The fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long (1–3 in) and usually contains two to four (rarely more) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.

200px-SoybeanvarietiesSoybeans occur in various sizes, and in many hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, green and mottled. The hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, and protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl (or “germ”) from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate. The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.

Remarkably, seeds such as soybeans containing very high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption.